Learning Material

Choosing the relevant drivers for your experiment is vital. The decision making tool can help. Remember that the most relevant drivers for your experiment may not be here!

Interactions between drivers – terminology

The table provides definitions of commonly used terms in the literature – from Folt et al. (1999)  through to the present day – for the interactive biological effects between drivers.

Useful references

Boyd et al. (2018)
Experimental strategies to assess the biological ramifications of multiple drivers of global ocean change—A review. Global Change Biology, DOI: 10.1111/gcb.14102

Darling E. S. & Côté I. M., 2008.
Quantifying the evidence for ecological synergies. Ecology Letters 11:1278-1286.

Folt, C. L., Chen, C. Y., Moore, M. V., & Burnaford, J., 1999.
Synergism and antagonism among multiple stressors. Limnology and Oceanography, 44, 864–877.

Hegmann, G. et al. 1999.
Cumulative Effects Assessment Practitioners Guide.”, Prepared for the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency by the Cumulative, Effects Assessment Working Group and AXYS Environmental Consulting. Ltd.


Oesterwind, D., A. Rau, A. Zaiko (2016)
Drivers and pressures: Untangling the terms commonly used in marine science and policy. J. Env. Manag. 181: 8-15.